January 16, 2024

Managing the Risk of Large Language Models (LLMs) in Financial Services

The financial services sector is undergoing a transformative journey with the integration of cutting-edge technologies, and at the forefront of this revolution are Large Language Models (LLMs). These advanced artificial intelligence (AI) models, exemplified by OpenAI’s GPT-4, BloombergGPT and more, have demonstrated unparalleled capabilities in natural language processing, data interpretation, and content generation. However, with this tremendous power comes the responsibility to manage the inherent risks associated with deploying LLMs in financial services.

Understanding the landscape

What are financial LLMs?

The financial services sector is getting increasingly more attention from organizations in ****terms of developing LLMs that can be used for prediction without sentiment. This includes stock returns, volatiles, corporate fraud, etc. Some of the more prominent LLMs today are:


BloombergGPT is a large language model boasting 50 billion parameters, specifically trained on financial data. It can sift through vast amount of data for its clients, unlocking new opportunities. Combining both finance and public data sets, BloombergGPT uses one huge 700 billion token data set comprised of financial documents.


FinBERT outperforms run-of-the-mill ML and DL models, being able to understand financial text and run sentiment, ESG and FLS classification tasks. It can be used to enhance NLP research and application. Its data set is comprised of 4.9 billion tokens.


Unlike BloombergGPT, which is costly to retrain on a monthly or weekly basis, FinGPT can be retrained or “fine-tuned” to reduce costs, which can be as low as $300. Its ace in the sleeve – RLHF (Reinforcement learning from human feedback). This technology enables FinGPT to learn individual preferences such as risk-aversion level, investing habits, etc.

Large language models are steadily making their way into the financial services, have huge data sets, and can be trained based on human feedback to perform a wide variety of tasks. Despite the plethora of benefits, there are still risks associated with LLMs.

How to Manage the Risks of LLMs in Financial Services

  1. Establish ethical AI policies to navigate the risks associated with LLMs. Financial institutions must establish clear and comprehensive ethical AI policies. These policies should serve as a guiding framework for the development, deployment, and use of LLMs, emphasizing fairness, transparency, and accountability.
  2. Use diverse and representative training data by actively seeking out and rectifying biases during the model development process. This can significantly contribute to the fairness and reliability of LLMs.
  3. Adopt regular audits and monitoring to maintain the integrity of LLMs and to identify and address potential risks and biases. Continuous monitoring systems should be implemented to detect any deviations from expected behavior, allowing for timely intervention.
  4. Collaborate with regulators through open communication is critical to ensuring that the use of LLMs aligns with evolving regulatory requirements. Proactively seeking guidance can help financial institutions stay ahead of emerging challenges and foster a cooperative regulatory environment.

LLMs are trained on vast datasets that mirror the intricacies of the real world. However, this also means they can inadvertently inherit biases present in these data sets. In the context of financial services, biased LLMs can lead to unfair outcomes in customer interactions, credit assessments, and other critical decision-making processes.

Implementing robust testing and validation processes is essential to identify and rectify biases in LLMs. Rigorous scrutiny of training data, coupled with ongoing monitoring, can help ensure fair and unbiased decision-making.

Organizations should conduct thorough legal reviews to ensure the deployment of LLMs complies with data protection laws, financial regulations, and other relevant legal frameworks. Collaborating with regulatory bodies can provide valuable insights into compliance requirements.

Regulatory Compliance

The financial services industry operates within a stringent regulatory framework characterized by rules and standards designed to protect consumers, ensure fair practices, and maintain market stability. The use of LLMs must align with these existing regulations to prevent legal complications and ethical breaches.

LLMs are often criticized for their lack of transparency, making it challenging to understand the rationale behind specific decisions. In financial services, where transparency is crucial for regulatory compliance and customer trust, this opacity can be a significant concern.

Developing methods for interpreting and explaining LLM decisions is paramount. This may involve creating supplementary documentation, implementing model-agnostic interpretability techniques, or even utilizing explainable AI models to shed light on the decision-making process.

Cybersecurity and Adversarial Attacks

The financial sector is a prime target for cyberattacks, and LLMs, being complex models, are susceptible to adversarial attacks where malicious actors manipulate input data to deceive the model and generate incorrect outputs.

OWASP’s Top 10 most critical vulnerabilities help organizations become aware of issues such as prompt injections, data leakage, unauthorized code executions, etc. to improve the security of their LLMs.

Financial institutions must invest significantly in robust cybersecurity measures, including regular security audits, encryption, and continuous monitoring. Preparing for and responding to adversarial attacks is essential for maintaining the integrity and reliability of LLMs.

Data Privacy and Security

LLMs rely on extensive datasets for training, some of which may contain sensitive information. In the financial sector, protecting customer data is not just a best practice; it’s a legal and ethical imperative.

Implementing strong encryption, access controls, and data anonymization techniques can help mitigate the risks associated with data privacy and security. Additionally, adherence to data protection laws and regulations is non-negotiable.

Final Words

As the financial services industry embraces the transformative potential of Large Language Models, it is imperative to acknowledge and address the associated risks. Balancing innovation with responsibility requires a holistic approach that combines ethical guidelines, technical expertise, and collaboration with regulatory bodies. By prioritizing fairness, transparency, and accountability, financial institutions can harness the power of LLMs while safeguarding against potential pitfalls. As we navigate this evolving landscape, the responsible use of LLMs will play a pivotal role in shaping the future of financial services.

Why choose Lumenova AI

Lumenova AI is dedicated to supporting enterprises in all stages of their Responsible AI journey.

If your company finds itself impacted by the recent legislation, our AI Governance, Risk, and Compliance platform stands ready to provide extensive support, ensuring continued compliance while fostering successful business transformation.

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Related topics: Banking & Investment

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